Physical Chemistry Notes : Free Download

1. Some Basic concepts of chemistry

Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry will cover points, for example, Importance of Chemistry, Nature of Matter, States of Matter, Classification of Matter, Properties of Matter and their Measurement, Physical and substance properties, Measurement of physical properties, The International System of units. Mass and weight, volume, Density, Temperature, Uncertainty in measurement, Scientific Notation, Significant Figures, Dimensional Analysis, Laws of Chemical Combination, Law of preservation of mass, Law of Definite extent, Law of different extent, Gay Lussac’s law of vaporous, Volumes, Avogadro Law, Dalton’s Atomic Theory, Atomic and Molecular mass, Atomic Mass, Average Atomic Mass, Molecular Mass, Formula Mass, Mole Concept and Molar Masses, Percentage Composition, Empirical Formula for Molecular Formula, Stoichiometry and Stoichiometric Calculations, Limiting Reagent and Reactions in Solutions.

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2. Solutions

Solution, After studying this unit you will most likely describe the development of different types of solution, Express centralization of solution in different units, state and explain Henry’s law and Raoult’s law, distinguish among ideal and non ideal solution, explain deviations of genuine solution from Raoult’s law, describe colligative properties of solution and associate these with molar mass of the solute, explain irregular colligative property shown by some solutes in solutions.

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3. Redox Reactions

In this chapter you will learn classical idea of redox reaction-oxidation and reduction reaction, Redox reaction in terms of electron transfer reaction, Oxidation number, Redox reaction and electrode processes, balancing redox reactions in terms of loss and gain of electron and change in oxidation numbers.

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4. Behavior Of Gases

In this Chapter you will learn about how gas behave, characteristics of gases, three states of matter, intermolecular interactions, types of bonding, melting and boiling points, role of gas laws of elucidating the concept of the molecule, Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law, ideal behaviour of gases, empirical derivation of gas equation. Avogadro number, ideal gas equation. Kinetic energy and molecular speeds (elementary idea), deviation from ideal behaviour, liquefaction of gases, critical temperature. Liquid State- Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivations).

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5. Atomic Structure

In this Chapter you will learn about atomic number, isotopes and isobars. Concept of shells and subshells, dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concept of orbital, quantum numbers, shapes of s,p and d orbitals, rules for filling electrons in orbitals- Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principles and Hund’s rule, electronic configuration of atoms, stability of half filled and completely filled orbitals.

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6. Chemical Kinetics

In this chapter you will learn rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction; concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory ( elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenius equation.

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7. Thermodynamics

In this chapter you will learn first law of thermodynamics-internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of U and H, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of : bond dissociation, combustion, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition, ionization, solution and dilution. Introduction of entropy as state function, Second law of thermodynamics, Gibbs energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, criteria for equilibrium and spontaneity. Third law of thermodynamics- Brief introduction.

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8. Physical and Chemical Equilibrium

In this chapter you will learn equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of chemical equilibrium, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium-Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium- ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, ionization of polybasic acids, acid strength, concept of PH., Hydrolysis of salts (elementary idea), buffer solutions, Henderson equation, solubility product, common ion effect (with illustrative examples).

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9. Solid State

In this chapter you will learn classification of solids based on different binding forces; molecular, ionic covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties, Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators.

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10. Surface Chemistry

In this chapter you will learn adsorption-physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophillic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions- types of emulsions.

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11. Chemical Bonding

In this chapter you will learn valence electrons, ionic bond, covalent bond, bond parameters, Lewis structure, polar character of covalent bond, valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals and shapes of some simple molecules, molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules (qualitative idea only). Hydrogen bond.

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12. Classification and Periodicity of Elements

In this chapter you will learn trends in Periodic elements. Hostory of periodic table. And Important trends.

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13. S – Block Elements

In this chapter you will learn group I and group 2 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, anomalous properties of the first element of each group, diagonal relationship, trends in the variation of properties (such as ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionic radii), trends in chemical reactivity with oxygen, water, hydrogen and halogens; uses. Preparation and Properties of Some important Compounds: Sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, sodium hydroxide and sodium hydrogencarbonate, biological importance of sodium and potassium. Industrial use of lime and limestone, biological importance of Mg and Ca.

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14. P – Block Elements

In this chapter you will learn General Introduction & Trends to p-Block Elements.

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15. Coordination Compunds

In this chapter you will learn coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, isomerism (structural and stereo) bonding, Werner’s theory VBT,CFT; importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, biological systems).

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16. D & F block elements

In this chapter you will learn general introduction, electronic configuration, characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals- metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation.

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